International Journal of Language and Literary Studies 2024-03-30T21:47:27+00:00 International Journal of Language and Literary Studies Open Journal Systems <p>International<strong> Journal of Language and Literary Studies </strong> is an open access, double blind peer reviewed journal that publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of linguistics, literature and TESL. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference. All articles published in LLSJ are initially peer-reviewed by experts in the same field.</p> ‘A Community Under Siege’: Analysing Kohut’s Thoughts of ‘Narcissistic Rage’ in Githa Hariharan’s Fugitive Histories 2023-09-29T15:25:21+00:00 Somsuvra Midya Binod Mishra <p><em>This paper looks at the operational mechanics of narcissistic rage as a subversive force within the poignant depiction of communal violence in Githa Hariharan’s novel Fugitive Histories, utilizing a psychoanalytical lens inspired by the insights of Kohut. This exploration aims to unravel the intricate nexus between the phenomenon of riot and narcissistic tendencies, scrutinizing the concept of collective narcissism as it pertains to social communities. Employing Kohut’s in-depth study of group psychology, the research delves into the transformative dynamics of narcissistic rage and its consequential impact on instances of communal upheaval. The paper culminates in a discussion highlighting the potential role of empathy as a mitigating agent against the perils of narcissistic rage.</em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Somsuvra Midya, Binod Mishra TRANSLANGUAGING: STUDENTS AS MEANING MAKING CONTRIBUTORS 2023-12-23T20:07:10+00:00 Shahzad Ahmad <p><em>Contrary to Communicative Language Teaching ideology, translanguaging exploits the collective linguistic output that potentially adds to the language learning capacity of learners. It has emerged as an empowering tool for bi/multilingual learners of a language. The following research questions will be asked: 1) How can translanguaging enrich students’ writing skills in the Target Language (TL)? 2) What are the drawbacks that may be encountered? 3) How does translanguaging go beyond the conventional approach to classroom learning? The study will focus on the mixed method approach employing a semi structured questionnaire and interviews. Anderson’s </em><em>(2017 as cited in Turnbull, 2019) </em><em>translanguaging continuum will be used as a reference point for this research. The results will be collated to examine the difference in responses and to see which strategy produces more favourable outcomes. This study will help to legitimize the use of translanguaging in the classroom as a means of maximizing students' potential of meaning-making activity.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Shahzad Ahmad Sociolinguistic Exploration of Language and Society in 'The Bluest Eye' 2024-01-15T01:20:49+00:00 Anjum Chaudhary Sahar AlZahrani <p><em>The present study aims to investigate the sociolinguistic features surrounding “The Bluest Eyes”, a novel by Toni Morrison. </em><em>In general, "The Bluest Eye" explores how cultural variables, particularly those about race, physical beauty, and identity, can affect the way people see themselves and the world. It is a compelling examination of the terrible and deeply personal effects that systematic racism and cultural beauty standards may have on individuals within a community. In an attempt to examine how societal dynamics are presented within a single-speech community, sociolinguistic literature has been reviewed. A thorough discourse analysis of the selected conversations of the fictional narrative is done using Hymes’ S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G model. The samples are taken from the primary text – ‘The Bluest Eyes’ as the major corpus. The findings indicate that social variables like cultural norms, age, gender, race, class, etc. are very much prevalent in the language of the characters and influence the communication competence of the characters in the social milieu presented by Toni Morrison. To prove the viability of Hymes’ proposition of the S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G model, the study may help teachers as well as learners</em><em> to gain a better perception and understanding of any literary text. Moreover, it would be a useful guide to the analysis of the dimensions of communication.</em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Anjum Chaudhary Who’s the scariest of them all? Depictions of evil women in Greek folktales 2024-01-26T23:08:17+00:00 Artemis Papailia <p><em>This study aims to investigate the portrayal of demonic women in Greek folktales and their significance in reflecting societal perceptions of femininity. We selected 17 editions of folktales in the Greek publishing industry as our primary source material and utilized content analysis as our method of analysis. Negative values such as ferocity, malice, brutality, wickedness, and ugliness were used as criteria to study the demonic woman's external appearance and personality. Vladimir Propp’s Morphologie du conte (1970) served as a reference for examining the demonic woman's qualities such as name, origin, social position, age, external characteristics, and peculiarity of her appearance. We also focused on the demonic woman's actions and relationship with the hero/heroine to highlight the terrifying aspects of her inner world. The study sheds light on how the representation of demonic femininity in Greek folktales reveals societal and traditional assumptions about female gender. Our findings aim to demonstrate the different faces of the diabolical women in Greek folktales and present a collective representation of the demonic.</em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Artemis Papailia PRACTICES OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS IN ASSESSING JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ WRITING PERFORMANCE 2024-02-07T15:34:45+00:00 Karl Angelo Tabernero <p><em>As English language teachers explore existing writing assessment approaches and strategies, it is, however, inevitable to encounter challenges in the different phases of writing assessment. The challenge is not confined alone to the development of writing assessment tools but more so to the establishment of fair and reliable results for writing performance. It has been argued that the gap between norms and traditions among language schools is one root of such a challenge. One writing assessment practice may work for one setting but not another. Therefore, the present study is intended to discover the writing assessment approaches and strategies employed by junior high school English language teachers in the context and to identify the relevant challenges they encountered in utilizing such writing assessment practices.</em></p> <p><em>To meet the research objective, a qualitative investigation through a narrative inquiry approach was employed. The data were gathered from seven (7) English language teachers in a junior high school in Bataan, Philippines. Self-made, semi-structured interview guides were utilized. The shared narratives from the interviews served as data subjected to thematic analysis.</em></p> <p><em>The research investigation revealed that English language teachers generally utilize scoring rubrics and an analytical approach to assess junior high school students’ writing performance. As a result, they have found challenges in assessing writing performance due to strict adherence to the components of scoring rubrics, time constraints, and the poor writing competencies of students. To address the issues, the study suggests writing assessment programs and training that promote contextualization, ICT integration, and learning autonomy.</em></p> <p><em>English language teachers value the importance of systematic writing assessment practices while also recognizing the roles of emerging practices that will establish not only fairness but also effectiveness that is responsive to the development of the English writing competencies of the students.</em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Karl Angelo Tabernero Moroccan Teachers’ Acceptance and Use of Microsoft Teams During COVID-19 2024-02-07T23:59:42+00:00 Ousama Saki Hanane DARHOUR Said Sibouih Abdelwahab Elfiaa <p><em>This study examines Moroccan teachers’ acceptance and use of Microsoft Teams, Morocco’s official educational platform for distance education. To investigate the factors that affect teachers’ decision to accept and use this platform, the study employs an exploratory quantitative research design and adopts the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (</em><em>UTAUT</em><em>) as the conceptual framework. The overall results indicate that many participants never used Microsoft Teams, and a significant proportion expressed uncertainty about its utility. Generally, the participants had positive perceptions of this educational platform in terms of its user-friendliness, yet limited social influence and lack of facilitating conditions hampered its widespread use. The study emphasizes the significant role of the civic responsibility construct as a driving force for teachers’ motivation to use Microsoft Teams. Based on these results, the study provides some recommendations to policymakers and education stakeholders on how to boost teacher acceptance and use of Microsoft Teams. &nbsp;</em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ousama Saki , Hanane DARHOUR, Said Sibouih, Abdelwahab Elfiaa Language Shift Among Saudi Children Studying in Riyadh International Schools: Fact or Fiction? 2024-02-04T16:25:15+00:00 Nasiba Abdulrahman Alyami <p><em>The study aimed at identifying whether there exists a language shift towards English among Saudi children studying in international schools in Riyadh. This was approached through investigating the code choices they prefer to use in different life domains (such as the home domain (parents and siblings), school domain (friends and teachers), neighbors, and relatives…etc.), i.e. from their parents' perspectives. To achieve the aim of the study, a descriptive survey approach was followed, where the study sample consisted of (382) parents. The questionnaire was also used as a data collection tool. The results revealed that Saudi children studying in international schools in Riyadh showed different tendencies towards language choice, while communicating in different domains. More specifically, they tend to use English more than their native tongue (Arabic) in daily spontaneous communication. The findings thus indicate that the children are in fact going through early stages of Language Shift.&nbsp; </em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nasiba Abdulrahman Alyami The Importance of Background Knowledge in Covid-related Internet Memes 2024-02-28T19:20:58+00:00 Anca Irina Cighir <p><em>2020 was the most challenging year of our lives so far: Covid-19 was our enemy; it was everywhere, on each and every continent, except Antarctica. We were living in a dystopian world and could not see any way out. Besides isolating ourselves and wearing masks everywhere, we had no means to protect ourselves and our loved ones. The only way to stay in touch with our peers and loved ones were our phones and the internet. The internet connected us to people all over the world, we were not alone, we shared feelings and we shared memes. Internet memes were the easiest genre of communication as they expressed so much in such a short time: with only two clicks (copy and paste) we were able to share it with all the people we wanted to.</em></p> <p><em>Our research focuses on the analysis of conceptual metaphors found in Internet memes during the Covid-19 pandemic in order to better understand what kept a lot of the people sane during those days.</em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Anca Irina Cighir The Lived Experiences of Non-Thai Teachers in Code-Switching at Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University 2024-02-11T21:36:08+00:00 Delfin Cejudo Jasson Compuesto Maricar Vinalay <p><em>This study investigates the lived experiences of non-Thai teachers' code-switching in delivering their English lessons in EFL classrooms. The study employed a qualitative approach, specifically phenomenology. The teachers were interviewed using semi-structured interview questions. The responses were transcribed and analyzed using Colaizzi’s seven-step descriptive phenomenological data analysis approach. The findings of this study showed that teachers’ experiences of code-switching were a helpful, practical, and essential tool to foster active participation from the students. The teachers’ reasons for utilizing code-switching are to relieve students’ anxiety and amplify socialization, word power, understanding of grammar, and instruction. Furthermore, the study also emphasizes that excessive use of code-switching can hinder the student’s learning of the target language. Additionally, the teachers face a challenge when they code-switch due to the tone-sensitive nature of the Thai language. Thus, it is suggested that one must be at least conversational in the students' language to use code-switching effectively. It is concluded in this study that teachers should not cease using code-switching since it helps students grasp complex ideas and allows them to be engaged in the classroom.</em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Delfin Cejudo, Dr. Jasson Compuesto, Maricar Vinalay The Flâneur in Baudelaire and Whitman 2024-01-03T19:27:09+00:00 Chiung-Ying Huang <p><em>This paper discusses the trans-cultural affinities between Whitman and Baudelaire through the question of the flâneur, a figure whose emergence coincides with the booming development of economic industry in the nineteenth century. Although there is no historical evidence that Whitman had any real connection with Baudelaire in his life, both Baudelaire and Whitman are all poets of modern life and have mutual infatuation with modernity. Both poets also innovatively demonstrate their poetic strength by establishing a poetic world dominated by visual images, with their poetic visions deeply rooted in the frank realities of modern urban life, unveiling a particular Modernist mode of urban experience. In investigating a possible link between Baudelaire and Whitman, this paper concludes that the relationship between the two poets is one of confluence rather than influence. Though deployed in the mode of the flâneur, Whitman’s poetics is in essence apart from this French model. More than simply a flâneur, Whitman is the poet of the city, the crowds, the body, the soul, and the nation. Discussing the roles of the flâneur in Whitman and Baudelaire, this paper manages to introduce new material for a comparative study between the two poets.</em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chiung-Ying Huang Secondary Level Students’ Experiences in English as a Medium of Instruction: A Nepalese Context 2024-02-24T22:43:25+00:00 Aananda Rai <p><em>This study explores the secondary-level students’ experiences in English as a medium of instruction in education. It aimed at identifying the challenges in English as a medium of instruction for the students in the Nepalese educational settings. It used narrative inquiry as a research method in order to explore the living experiences of the students regarding the practice of using the English language as a language of classroom instruction in the context where English is used as a non-native language. Semi-structured interview has been used as a research process for data collection and the interview guidelines have been used as research tools while collecting data from purposely selected seven student participants studying in the secondary level. This study has revealed that the students experience English as a medium of instruction as a practice to boost up their confidence personally as well as academically despite their EMI hardships in and outside their educational settings. </em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Aananda Rai Phonological Awareness of English among Saudi Learners: An Examination of the Role of Lexical Status and Intra-syllabic Phonological Unit 2024-02-19T20:17:32+00:00 Amal Alasmari <p><em>This study explores phonological awareness ability in the second language. Although some studies have examined L2 phonological awareness, most of these studies have not provided sufficient details on the type of stimulus items employed in these studies nor considered the possible effect of some linguistic factors on the results. Thus, the study aims to explore the impact of the lexical status of the item on phonological awareness in L2. In addition, the study examines the preferred intra-syllabic phonological unit in L2 among Saudi university students. Specifically, the study examines the effect of the lexical status (word vs non-word) and the intra-syllabic phonological unit (onset-rime vs. body-coda) on the phonological awareness of English. The participants were 48 university students majoring in English language. Two phonological awareness tasks were administered to test phonological awareness at the intra-syllabic and phonotactic levels. The tasks were an intra-syllabic segmentation task and a lexical decision task. The results showed significant effects of both linguistic factors on the participants’ L2 phonological awareness. The lexical status of the test item had a significant effect on the participants’ performance in the task. The participants performed significantly better in identifying real-words than non-words, which reflects an advanced phonotactic awareness. Finally, the results revealed that the body-coda unit is the preferred intra-syllabic structure for Saudi learners. Therefore, the study provides evidence that the onset-rime hypothesis is not universal and is at least not applicable to Saudi Arabic speakers. The study offers theoretical and practical implications for the acquisition and teaching of L2. </em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Amal Alasmari Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Analysing Speech Acts in Different Cultures 2024-02-13T23:02:44+00:00 Saima Usmani AMAL ALMASHHAM <p><em>Cross-cultural communication entails understanding the nuanced differences in speech acts across diverse cultural contexts. This study aimed to explore these variations, focusing on pragmatic differences and similarities in speech acts among participants from various cultural backgrounds. Employing qualitative methods, communicative scenarios were devised to elicit speech acts, and interactions were recorded for analysis. The participants' cultural backgrounds were diverse, representing a range of ethnicities, languages, and socio-cultural contexts. Data analysis involved categorizing and comparing speech acts across cultures, identifying patterns, and examining cultural influences on speech act usage. Results indicated significant variations in the frequency, form, and interpretation of speech acts among different cultural groups. Cultural norms, values, and communication styles were found to shape participants' understanding and enactment of speech acts, highlighting the intricate relationship between language and culture in communication. These findings have important implications for intercultural communication, language education, and international business. Understanding cultural differences in speech act usage can enhance communication effectiveness in diverse settings, fostering mutual understanding and reducing misunderstandings. Overall, this study contributes to the growing body of research on cross-cultural pragmatics, emphasizing the need for culturally sensitive approaches to communication in an increasingly globalized world.</em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Saima Usmani, AMAL ALMASHHAM Preferred Oral Corrective Feedback through Existing Internalized Language Prejudice of Students in the Philippines 2024-02-24T21:52:40+00:00 Monica Louise Yaneza Claire Rose Miralles Jv Andrew Morales Geneva Cao John Louie Cruz Ma. Ericca Orga Kurt Christian Reodava <p class="AbstractText" style="line-height: 150%;"><em>Following the 2022 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) test results, it was found out that the Philippines ranked 76th in reading comprehension among 81 PISA-participating countries. Students from the Philippines are still among the least proficient in the world in reading comprehension. With the country performing below the standards and criterion set by the organization, the researchers investigate internalized language prejudice as learners’ primary obstruction in acquiring the English language. Provided that the Oral Corrective Feedback (OCF) is essential for students’ learning process and performing separate functions in acquiring the English language, this paper aims to figure out their preferred OCF in acquiring the language. Furthermore, the proponents of the study delve into the reasons of the selected students when given an OCF in connection and relevance with how internalized language prejudice, stereotypes, and preconceived notions come into play in terms of the effectiveness of the English language learning and teaching. Lastly, the paper used mixed methods in gathering data: quantitative through an online survey form and qualitative through Focus Group Discussions (FGD). </em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Monica Louise Yaneza, Claire Rose Miralles, Jv Andrew Morales, Geneva Cao-Sadie, John Louie Cruz, Ma. Ericca Orga, Kurt Christian Reodava Approaches and Limitations of L2 Textbook Evaluation Research 2024-02-29T21:39:08+00:00 Thamer Kalfut <p><em>The evaluation of L2 textbooks is an important aspect of curriculum development in L2 learning and teaching. It has been the subject of research since the 1970s. A large number of studies have been conducted to investigate the language skills, linguistic elements, or/and social factors presented in textbooks. However, even so,&nbsp;the issue of evaluation research approaches has not received very much critical attention. As a result, this research project is concerned with the methodology used in textbook research. It aims to provide an overview of current approaches to L2 textbook evaluation research, as well to highlight their major limitations. It reviews research methods used in previous studies targeting textbooks from grade one to grade twelve in various countries and reveals two main approaches. The first approach&nbsp;seeks to conduct a thorough assessment of one specific English textbook. L2 material researchers often use a Likert scale checklist to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of an entire English language textbook. The second approach evaluates an English textbook from a micro perspective, with a particular emphasis on one single aspect of it, such as reading or writing. These findings may help us to better understand&nbsp;current evaluation approaches used by textbook researchers and their limitations. It shows what needs to be done to improve this evaluation process in the future.</em></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Thamer Kalfut Predicting Elicited Imitation Performance from Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency (CAF) of L2 Oral Production 2024-02-07T23:42:04+00:00 Ghadah Albarqi <p><em>The Elicited Imitation Test (EIT) is a testing tool that has been used to measure </em><em>the </em><em>second language (L2) proficiency for L2 research. The EIT construct is, nevertheless, still not comprehensively investigated in EFL contexts. </em><em>This study aims to contribute to this field by </em><em>examin</em><em>ing the extent to which</em><em> complexity</em><em> (indexed by lexical diversity, mean length of utterance)</em><em>, accuracy </em><em>(percentage of error-free clauses) </em><em>and fluency </em><em>(breakdown, self-repair, speed) </em><em>(CAF)</em> <em>can predict </em><em>EIT </em><em>performance in a Saudi context. A total of 66 learners were recruited to narrate picture stories. Multiple regression analysis was employed to answer the research questions. The findings show that speed fluency, filled pauses, and accuracy are key indicators of EIT performance. This implies that faster and more accurate L2 speech with fewer pauses is likely associated with a better EIT performance. Additionally, the data highlights the validity of EIT as an assessment instrument across various linguistic settings</em>.</p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ghadah Albarqi Travelling to the Secular or Journeying Inside The Self: Jurje Zaidane’s Gaze on European Modernity (Rihla Ila Oroba 1912, A Travel To Europe) 2024-02-13T00:03:06+00:00 Abdelaziz Tritha <p><em>Starting from his confrontational allegiance and parochial thesis, namely in his Essays and Lectures of William Robertson Smith(1912), William Robertson Smith discredits Arab travellers for their zealous keenness to discover Western cultural intricacies. He has examined the cultural practices and social kinships of Semite people and studied their theologies. William Robertson Smith went as far as to assume that “The Arabian traveller is quite different from ourselves. The labour of moving from place to place is a mere nuisance to him, he has no enjoyment in the effort, and grumbles at hunger or fatigue with all his might” (Smith, 1912, p: 498). My particular interest is in Jurje Zaidane’s Rihla Ila Oroba (1912) as a culturally inspired travel account to France and England. It is not only a voyage to discern the intricacies of the Western civilizational repositories but an interesting endeavour to demonstrate the long-standing tradition of Arabs’ presence in British and French cultural repertoire. His voyage shows the extent to which Arabs were inspired by Western modern logos. Jurje Zaidane minutely lingers on infinitesimal details of each country. I argue that this travel is a parallel occidentalist discourse that tries to create a counter-discursive narrative. Jurje Zaidane, from the perspective of a well-versed essayist, novelist and erudite traveller, cross-examines French and English cultural contexts. Ranging from the narration of public spaces to comments on French and English women, the journey towards the Other is vicariously shifted to Self-inquiry and discovery. Broached from a postcolonial micro-historicist approach, this paper aims at stultifying both the orientalist discourse and the occidentalist premise predicated on Hassan Hanafi’s allegiance to Occidentalism. This article concludes that Zaidane’s travel displays heterogeneous discourses that do not re-install sharp divisive between the East and the West.</em></p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Abdelaziz Tritha Essay Writing Strategies Employed by English-Majored Sophomores at A University in Vietnam 2024-01-26T22:51:45+00:00 Trang Nguyen <p><em>This study investigates students’ use of essay writing strategies in different stages of the writing process. &nbsp;The participants included 105 English-majored sophomores at Hanoi Law University who have completed two courses in paragraph and essay writing instruction. A 5-level Likert close-ended survey questionnaire was designed to collect quantitative data regarding students’ frequency of applying overall and specific writing strategies in pre-writing, while-writing, and post-writing stages. &nbsp;The results revealed that while-writing strategies were used at high frequency by the participants while pre-writing and post-writing strategies were used at medium frequency. It is also found that, at the pre-writing stage, the students prefer reading sample essays; trying to understand the task requirements by either referring to their teacher’s notes or discussing with their teachers and friends and having a mental, unwritten plan before writing. While writing, students have taken use of various strategies which can be grouped into strategies to deal with the structure of the essay, strategies to develop ideas, strategies to activate vocabulary use, and strategies to review their mechanics. The strategies in the post-writing stage are the least frequently used, which include reading the whole text silently, checking if the essay matches the requirements, then making changes in the spelling and punctuation. Revising following their teacher’s feedback and actively asking their teacher or classmates are also frequently applied techniques for essay writing revision. </em></p> 2024-03-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Trang Nguyen Finding Her Voice Through Scriptotherapy: Marina Nemat’s Journey of Reclaiming Subjectivity after Trauma 2024-03-16T22:52:28+00:00 Elaheh Hooshmandasl Hossein Sabouri Firouzeh Ameri <p><em>Scriptotherapy, a form of writing therapy proposed by Suzette Henke, is gaining recognition in literary research but remains underrepresented in studies of Iranian diasporic literature, which often focus on identity crisis and Orientalist discourse. This paper explores the application of scriptotherapy in Marina Nemat’s memoirs, Prisoner of Tehran (2007) and After Tehran (2010), revealing the significant role of therapeutic writing in reclaiming subjectivity fragmented by trauma. As a teenager advocating for legislative reformation in 1980s Iran, Nemat faced legal consequences and two years of imprisonment, leaving enduring psychological wounds. Years after her release, disturbing memories and enduring silence compelled Nemat to utilize writing for catharsis. Through writing, Nemat confronts and transcends her haunting past, embarking on a transformative journey of healing and reclaiming her voice within an intersubjective realm. This paper emphasizes the importance of an audience as witnesses to trauma and discusses obstacles faced by women who bear witness, particularly when their testimonies involve institutional abuse and patriarchal constraints. This analysis demonstrates scriptotherapy’s transformative potential, empowering trauma survivors like Nemat to heal from the wounds of their traumatic pasts, ultimately enabling them to regain a profound sense of subjectivity, despite doubts about the authenticity of their narratives.</em></p> 2024-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Elaheh Hooshmandasl, Hossein Sabouri, Firouzeh Ameri Spanish Negative Concord Items: Experimental Evidence for Their Status as Strict Negative Polarity Items 2024-03-25T22:31:24+00:00 Daniel Vergara <p><em>This study investigates the semantic status of Spanish Negative Concord Items (NCIs) through their comparison with English Negative Quantifiers (NQs) and Polarity Items (PIs) in acceptability judgment tasks conducted among native speakers of Spanish and English. NCIs exhibit a dual behavior depending on their syntactic context, which has resulted in various analyses that categorize them as NQs, PIs, or non-negative indefinites. The findings from this investigation provide experimental confirmation that Spanish NCIs behave like strict Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) or indefinites that are exclusively licensed by a syntactically local anti-veridical operator (i.e., negation). This experimental approach sheds light on the longstanding controversy surrounding the semantic characterization of Spanish NCIs and contributes to our understanding of their behavior across a wide array of linguistic contexts. </em></p> 2024-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Daniel Vergara A Socio-Pragmatic Study of Apologies by Moroccan Native Speakers of Arabic 2023-05-23T11:35:55+00:00 Abderrahmane Ismaili Alaoui Youssef Benabderrazik <p><em>This study hypothesises that the functions of apology strategies are culture-specific. It is based on the assumption that certain contextual and cultural factors might influence the production and perception of apologies across languages and cultures. The present study investigates apology strategies in Moroccan Arabic, which has not received much attention in cross-cultural pragmatic research. This study examines data from 200 Moroccan Arabic native speakers. It adopts the more structured approach of quantitative research by using a Discourse Completion Task (DCT) to elicit the production of apologies from 10 different social situations between hypothetical interactants. Although this is a pioneering study in its societal context, its main results support earlier findings suggesting the universality of apology strategies; however, the illocutionary forces assigned to these strategies and the identification of new apology strategies reinforce the culture-specific aspect of apologies.</em></p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Abderrahmane Ismaili Alaoui, Youssef Benabderrazik Environmental Catastrophe in Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide 2024-02-24T22:46:39+00:00 Zahra Ahmad Shahla Rehana <p>“Conservation is a state of harmony between men and land. Despite nearly a century of propaganda, conservation still proceeds at a snail’s pace; progress still consists largely of letterhead pieties and convention oratory. … we still slip two steps backward for each forward stride.” (Leopold, 1968, p. 207)</p> <p>Since time immemorial men have ruled nature, escalated environmental issues and caused irreparable losses, posing a threat to their very own survival. Due to the negligence and degradation of the ecosystem, environmental concerns have become a global crisis. Aldo Leopold, Wangari Maathai and Rachael Carson are some of the prominent activists who raised their voices for the protection of nature. Amitav Ghosh in his novel <em>The</em> <em>Hungry Tide</em> set in the Sundarbans, meaning beautiful forests, emphasises the understanding and conservation of life in the Sundarbans, depicting a global issue in a local setting. The novel deals with the wrath of nature and colonial suppression. This paper intends to depict the environmental issues of the Sundarbans faced by its human and non-human inhabitants as well as bring out the human and environmental relationships in the novel. It also seeks to depict natural and manmade calamities in this rare ecologically rich biodiversity and the clarion call given by the author to save the environment.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Zahra Ahmad, Dr Shahla Rehana Lexical and Phonological Levelling in the Speech of Qassimi Arabic Speakers 2024-03-30T21:47:27+00:00 Anfal Alhumaid <p><em>This study on linguistic levelling in the speech of Qassimi Arabic speakers found that there are six distinct aspects of </em><em>phonological levelling present in the dialect, coupled with a plethora of examples on lexical levelling among two groups. </em><em>Qassimi Arabic speakers who reside in Qassim region and have lived there their entire lives, and Qassimi Arabic speakers who have resided in different Saudi regions most of their adult lives. Findings indicate </em><em>that women are more likely to engage in levelling, and those with less education, and resident in Qassim are less likely to engage in levelling. Dialect changes occurred in nearly 2 of 3 participants and were due to the mixing of cultures and growing urbanisation. The results of the study are in line with other literature indicating that speakers of Qassimi Arabic engage in spontaneous levelling of their dialect for prosocial motives, for reasons having to do with ease of use and convenience. The study made meaningful contributions in explicating the specific aspects of phonological and lexical levelling with respect to the Qassimi Arabic dialect and to the influences of variables such as gender, age, gender, and region.</em></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Anfal Alhumaid English Language Learners’ Perception and Motivation Towards Exam Format: A Qualitative Study 2024-03-25T01:30:51+00:00 Salmane Griche <p><em>The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of students at the English department at&nbsp;</em><em>Ibn Tofail University&nbsp;towards exam format, and the motivation behind their preferences. In order to achieve these objectives, a qualitative methodology was employed. The subjects of this study are sixteen undergraduate students currently enrolled at the English department at ITU, and three students who recently graduated from the same university. An open-ended questionnaire is used to glean the necessary information, and to allow the subjects to freely express their opinions and attitudes with minimal influence. The collected data&nbsp;is&nbsp;analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings show that ITU’s&nbsp;EFL&nbsp;students believe that&nbsp;MCQ&nbsp;exams cannot properly assess writing skills, or competency in certain courses. The MCQ exam preference is mainly motivated by the practicality of the format, while the written format preference is mainly motivated by the fact that it encourages deep learning, enables higher cognitive levels of thinking, and improves writing skills.</em></p> 2024-04-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Salmane Griche