International Journal of Language and Literary Studies <p>International<strong> Journal of Language and Literary Studies </strong> is an open access, double blind peer reviewed journal that publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of linguistics, literature and TESL. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference. All articles published in LLSJ are initially peer-reviewed by experts in the same field.</p> Tawasul International Centre for publishing, Research and Dialogue en-US International Journal of Language and Literary Studies 2704-5528 An Investigation into Project-Based Learning in Higher Education: The Case of EFL in Moroccan Universities <p><em>Project-Based Learning has gained immense popularity as an innovative method that reinforces learners’ critical thinking, autonomous learning and collaboration. It is basically founded on constructivism and experiential theories wherein students learn by doing. The objective of using this method is to enable learners to construct knowledge through meaningful learning experiences using real-life themes. Plainly, it is an expedition of discovery where learners are often required to choose, prepare and present a project about a given course-related topic. This study aimed to reveal Moroccan English majoring students’ perceptions towards the implementation of Project-Based Method in learning English as a foreign Language. 1857 B.A. students from various colleges of Arts and humanities were involved in responding to a questionnaire to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The descriptive statistics, after analysis, showed that project work develops several language and life skills, especially oral communication, vocabulary and creative-critical thinking. It also found out that using projects plays a focal role in enhancing learners’ sense of responsibility and confidence, motivation, autonomous learning and provides a positive learning environment. However, the participants mentioned a variety of challenges to implementing projects at the university level, namely stage anxiety, scarcity of relevant information, and time constraints. Overall, the findings of the study suggest several pedagogical implications to better integrate project work at the university level taking advantage of the positive attitudes learners hold towards this learning approach.</em></p> Amine EL MOUDDEN Fouzia LAMKHANTER Copyright (c) 2024 Amine EL MOUDDEN, Fouzia LAMKHANTER 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 6 2 From Womb to Words: Unveiling the Changing Understanding of Hysteria <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>In ancient periods, there was the tendency to label a woman as mad or hysteric if she behaved in a strange manner. The reason was that, since at those times women were considered to be inferior creatures, their bodies were thought to be degraded easily. Accordingly, in the medieval period, hysteria was linked to distress in the womb, which would affect the whole body easily. In that sense, in this period hysteria was only associated with women. Especially ancient Greeks believed that hysteria occurred due to not having enough sex or orgasms. Therefore, according to them the cure for this ailment was getting married and having a satisfying sexual life. However, in the dark Middle Ages, hysteria started to be related to witchcraft, rather than sexual dissatisfaction. It was still linked to women only, but this time they were believed to be possessed by the Devil if they showed any disturbances or symptoms of hysteria. With the developments in science and technology, the understanding of hysteria changed from being associated with unfulfilled sexual drives or spirit possession to being a result of having psychological scars due to mental traumas or repressions. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to reflect the changing understanding of hysteria through female characters from 20<sup>th</sup> century American drama. </em></p> Sena Teber Copyright (c) 2024 sena teber 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 6 2 1 15 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1590 Figurativeness and Humour in Covid-19-Related Internet Memes <p><em>When social dilemmas arise, people often turn to humour and pop culture to find answers. At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic social networks flooded with internet memes. Internet memes are “a kind of modern folklore in which values are constructed through photoshopped images” (Shifman, 2014, p.14) and they often use figurative devices, being a genre of humour and creativity. The examination of internet memes can provide a way of understanding how people managed to cope with one of the most challenging crises of our times. This paper aims to analyse a series of COVID-19-related memes in order to show how the collectively lived experience of COVID-19 pandemic has been processed and perceived by social media users. To this end we collected and analysed internet memes created in 2020 with the aid of cinematography and whose captions are written in English. We also investigated factors that shaped people’s understandings of the memes. Our research focused on the analysis of the CONTAINER metaphor and orientational metaphors and also investigated the cognitive base of humour, that is, the incongruity “or incompatibility or contrast inside or between conceptual frames of knowledge – either figurative or literal” (Kovecses, 2015, p.135). In the current study we used both qualitative and quantitative methods which helped us interpret people’s perception of the metaphorical usage embedded in the Internet memes used in our research. Our findings lead us to conclude that in most interpretations of the memes the visual mode had a greater impact on the receivers and led them to a correct interpretation of the metaphors embedded.</em></p> Anca Irina Cighir Copyright (c) 2024 Anca Irina Cighir 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 6 2 16 37 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1635 Foreign Language Anxiety: A Study on Spanish Learners <p><em>Foreign language anxiety (FLA) as a crucial affective variable has been unexplored in the context of the Spanish language. This paper reports a study that investigated Spanish language anxiety (SLA) and its potential causes and inquired into the relationship between the role of a teacher and SLA. A mixed-methods research design was adopted, including a questionnaire [Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS)], semi-structured interviews, and observation as data collection among the undergraduates (female = 32, male = 18) and Spanish teachers (2). The FLCAS data revealed that students experience low to moderate anxiety, with communication apprehension being highly rated (mean = 3.26) followed by fear of negative evaluation (mean = 2.8) and test anxiety (mean = 2.25). The interview data recorded listening and speaking tasks, fear of negative evaluation, teacher talk, negative self-comparison, and previous bad language learning experiences are the prominent sources of anxiety. In this context, Spanish teachers are found to reduce students' anxiety mostly by giving interesting activities, accepting students' mistakes, and using body language. This paper offers insight into the causes that trigger FLA and an impactful relationship between a teacher's role and FLA. Some suggestions are proposed for teachers based on the findings to mitigate students’ anxiety.</em></p> Moumita Akter Copyright (c) 2024 Moumita Akter 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 6 2 38 56 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1608 Subtle Social Critique in Oliver Goldsmith’s She Stoops to Conquer <p><em>Oliver Goldsmith’s, <strong>She Stoops to Conquer</strong> </em><em>has been one of the most popular comedies in England’s 18<sup>th</sup> Century. This is due to the dramatist’s witty usage of satire and humour as a means to ridicule and burlesque society’s vices, shortcomings and false manners of the age. Yet, as the research explains, the play’s comical effects extend far beyond mere social laughter and entertainment. The play in fact delivers subtle radical criticism with regard to important issues such as intergenerational conflicts, gender discrimination, and marriage. The main objective of Goldsmith’s subtle criticism is to revoke and debunks prejudices, misconceptions and false opinions about marriage and woman’s strife for selfhood in Eighteenth-Century England. The research is significant for it brings into focus the dramatist’s artistic techniques in delivering subtle criticism in the comedy of manners. </em></p> Kawa Othman.O.Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Kawa Othman.O.Ahmed 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 6 2 57 70 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1656 Sonority-Induced Vowel Deletion and Epenthesis in Bedouin Hijazi Arabic <p><em>This paper examined vowel deletion triggered by sonority in Bedouin Hijazi Arabic. Bedouin Hijazi Arabic has a number of predictable vowel deletion processes that are phonologically conditioned. However, the type of vowel deletion examined in this paper is restricted in its application. It is triggered by sonority levels between a consonant in an onset position and a preceding coda. It results in word-medial clusters, which can trigger vowel epenthesis governed by the sonority hierarchy in the dialect. The epenthetic vowel varies in quality based on adjacent segments. The interaction between vowel deletion and epenthesis is examined within Harmonic Serialism, HS, a derivational framework of Optimality Theory. Instead of vowel deletion and vowel insertion taking place at all once, HS stipulates that only a single harmonic element is added progressively in each step. The same constraint hierarchy is implemented in each step until the desired output is achieved.</em></p> Majed AL SOLAMI Copyright (c) 2024 Majed AL SOLAMI 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 6 2 71 82 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1679 When the Beautiful IS the Good: Towards Linguistic Revealing and the Fitting Order of Ethos in T.S Eliot’s “Four Quartets” <p><em>Outside the politics of environmental justice which imbue the world with false responsibility, the ontology of technological subjectivity masks a drive to deplete and subjugate. The question then becomes: how is it possible to be ecologically just knowing that nature is conceived as an organism? More so, how can language be ethically restorative whilst the relationship between the ‘word’ and the ‘thing’ is grounded on the logic of representation? The palimpsest of ontological subjectivity, arising from Platonic eidos and cascading to Nietzsche’s will to power, reproduces a hierarchical system. The purpose of this study is to administer a trenchant critique of ontology rather than merely engage in ecological compassion and political power games. This essay defends the argument that the poetic realm preserves the long-forgotten essence of nature as physis, chiefly as that which evades the technological worldview of objectification. Instead of locating the salvation of nature in the subjectivity of the romantic lyricist or the ecological moralist, dwelling poetically demands a form of linguistic revealing and an ethos of response that lets nature be. First, Eliot’s image of the ‘matrimonie’ allows earth to appear as a gathering force. Second, the ‘river’ gathers the ‘land’s edge’ and the ‘gods’ radiance’ around the precinct of natural guardianship. It so happens that Eliot’s depiction of nature exhorts human beings to live amid the sprouting of trees, the supporting of soil, and the streaming of the river. This restorative act advocates an incisive critique of technological logic and an avowal of meditative thinking.</em></p> Omar Hansali Copyright (c) 2024 Omar Hansali 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 6 2 83 102 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1659 On the Racialization of the Moroccan ‘Other’ in Orientalist Romance <p><em>T</em><em>his paper offers an understanding of the discourse of difference in relation to the themes of race and identity in Rebecca Stratton’s bestselling romance The Silken Cage. </em><em>It unravels how Morocco, as a subject and a culture, is racialized in British orientalist romance to underpin the discourse</em><em> of the centre/periphery duality in cross-cultural encounters.</em><em> The Silken Cage is worthy of study due to </em><em>its interest in how the Moroccan ‘Other’ is turned into a commodity in popular romance</em><em>. After a postcolonial analysis of the suggested romance, it was found that racial conceptions of the Moroccan Other’s identity are at large contingent on racial hierarchies. The novel seems, at first glance, to negotiate the construction of racial identities and thereby dismantle the system of binarism between the ‘Self’ and the ‘Other.’ However, the author’s </em><em>emphasis on the ambivalence of the oriental subjects articulates a continued need for racial sameness and the denial of difference. Needless to say, given that racial hybridity is a prerequisite for the courtship to be successful reveals that Stratton resists cross-cultural difference. It can be thus argued that Stratton’s romance is an interracial ground where racial differences are not welcomed to legitimize Western hegemony and domination over the Orient.</em></p> Abdelghani Moussaoui Copyright (c) 2024 Abdelghani Moussaoui 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 6 2 103 116 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1662 Reimagining Feminism and Gender Relations in Saudi Arabia: A New Theoretical Framework <p><em>This article seeks a deeper understanding of the issues Arab women face in the Arab world and their rights. It is set in a framework that considers the context of these rights and issues. Whilst women throughout the Arab world often share similar experiences, there is variation, and this article focuses mainly on the experience of Saudi women. Theoretical feminist and interdisciplinary approaches analyse and highlight diverse perspectives in seeking a more profound understanding of women's rights, roles, status, challenges, and achievements. They also expose the various feminist paradigms underlying the theoretical framework. The study emphasises the importance of recognising the unique experiences of Arab women, respecting cultural differences, and avoiding universalisation and homogenisation of gender. It highlights the value of integrating feminist and postcolonial theoretical perspectives to comprehend better the complexities surrounding Saudi women's study. It also emphasises the contextualisation of literary works within local environments to provide a deep understanding of women's evolving roles, rights, and status contributions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Ultimately, the study aims to bridge the academic gap between English and Arabic scholarship in the representation of Saudi women.</em></p> Adel Musaylih Almuthaybiri Copyright (c) 2024 ADEL ALMUTHAYBIRI 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 6 2 117 136 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1634 Using Print Media to Facilitate Luganda Language Teaching and Learning for Authentic Learning <p><em>Luganda language teachers in Uganda have promoted the use of traditional language teaching strategies which are characterised by the CCR (copy, cram and reproduce) practice. Whereas language instruction has greatly shifted from traditional language teaching approaches to modern ones, this has not been the case with Luganda language teaching. Within the context of this background and with the aim of addressing this issue, we conducted a qualitative study, using a participatory action research approach to explore how Luganda teachers could use communicative strategies with the support of a variety of print media to facilitate Luganda teaching and learning for authentic learning. This paper presents an overview of how participants planned lessons using diverse print media to facilitate Luganda teaching and learning for authentic learning. Data was collected through participant observation and focus group discussions (reflective sessions). The findings emerging from this study indicated that the use of print media to facilitate Luganda language teaching led to enhanced learner participation and critical engagement.</em></p> Edward Masembe Logamurthie Athiemoolam Nokhanyo Mdzanga Copyright (c) 2024 Logamurthie Athiemoolam, Dr, Prof 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 6 2 137 152 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1660 The Untold Stories behind Tearful Eyes in M.G. Vasanji’s ‘‘And Home Was Kariakoo: A Memoir of an Indian African’’ <p><em>Writing history about one’s own country is much easier than documenting the same diaspora in a foreign land. As it happened somewhere, most of their stories might go unnoticed, neglected or censored. It is the greatness of any writer to depict the antiquities with all possible facts without hurting the sentiments of the natives of those nations. One such genuine attempt was made by Indian-origin Tanzanian writer M.G.Vasanji. His memoir “And Home Was Kariako” is the best example for displaying us the predicament of the Indian diaspora on the Tanzanian soil. In this research we testify those alienations, migrations, dispossessions and ordeals of Indian migrants in East Africa are actualities which were little noticed by the rest of the world. To manifest those certitudes, the authors of the research referred number of other articles, books and visited some of the places which were mentioned by M.G. Vasanji in his book. We then wrapped up by canvassing Vasanji’s “And Home Was Kariakoo: A memoir by An Indian African” is a testimony to know the adversities of Asian aliens in East Africa.</em></p> VEERABABU Maridi Jyothirmai Dakkumalla Copyright (c) 2024 VEERABABU Maridi, Professor D.Jyothirmai 2024-04-06 2024-04-06 6 2 153 159 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1651 Lost Utopia in Palestinian Flash Fiction <p><em>The present study examines the use of dystopia as a device in Palestinian flash fiction composed by writers living in Israel. The study will look at three examples of flash fiction and investigate how dystopia is manifested in the stories' plot, characters and language, in an attempt to evaluate the relationship between the distorted reality that came into being after the war of 1948 and the social, political and economic effects it left. I therefore examined the themes which Palestinian writers have addressed in flash fiction and investigated their use of dystopia in order to express the state of crisis in which Palestinians inside Israel live, and how this affects the plot, the language and the characters. Our study shows that dystopia has been used in order to express the state of crisis in which individuals live and their inability to accept the psychological and economic damage left by the war, as reflected in the characters, who gradually lose their hope for a secure future.</em></p> <p><em> </em></p> samah Saffuri khoury Copyright (c) 2024 samah Saffuri khoury 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 6 2 160 170 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1661 Translation Theory: A Historical-Thematic Account <p><em>The main function of Translation Studies is to study issues of translation production and propose solutions for translation problems. Today, Translation Studies is an academic discipline that is gaining more recognition in the academic community. More than that many scholars of different backgrounds and fields of study like literature, history, anthropology, semiotics, and philosophy have been attracted by translation studies. This article is divided into three sections. The first section presents a brief history of Translation Studies. The second section discusses definitions and meanings of the word 'translation'. The third section analyses different theories of translation.</em></p> <p> </p> MOURAD EL KHATIBI Copyright (c) 2024 MOURAD EL KHATIBI 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 6 2 171 184 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1674 Folktales of Bihar: A Study of the Animal Characters <p><em>Cultural elements in folktales can manifest through idiomatic expressions, metaphors, proverbs, or references to specific historical events or figures. Each of these elements holds significant cultural value, enriching the story and providing insights into the community's collective experiences and values. In India, folktales are cherished by millions for their entertainment and aesthetic value. These tales are typically passed down orally from one generation to the next, and in more recent times, they may also be found in written form. Folktales from different regions reflect the thoughts, traditions, and culture of their people, providing both entertainment and insight into their past and present customs. Bihar is one of the most important states of India, located in the eastern region of the country, and has a rich tradition of folk culture. We often observe the representation of animal characters in folktales. In the context of the folktales of Bihar, we can also observe the depiction of different types of animal beings. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the animals are represented in the context of folktales of Bihar. To undertake this study, we need to utilize the descriptive analysis approach. To undertake this study, we need to utilize the descriptive analysis approach.</em></p> Ashis Mahato Nishant Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Nishant Singh, Ashis Mahato 2024-05-19 2024-05-19 6 2 185 196 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1677 Stylistic Analysis of Francis Bacon’s Selected Essays <p><em>This paper is an attempt to analyze stylistically Bacon’s essays. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the writing style of Francis Bacon in the following selected essays (Of Studies, Of Revenge, OF Ambition, and Of Marriage and Single Live). Researchers analyzed the writing style of Bacon in these essays, specifically the aphoristic style. One of the most crucial characteristics of Bacon’s essays style is aphorism. It is a style which specified by the direct, straightforward, pithy and concise language. Apart from this, utilitarianism which is another feature of Bacon’s essay style, has been clarified clearly. Utilitarianism is a philosophy of thought that maintains and supports that the foremost actions are those that create the most happiness for the greatest number of people. In fact, researchers have found some elements regarding the selected essays such as didacticism, mannerism as well as worldly wisdom that introduce Francis Bacon as a utilitarian writer. Moreover, other crucial elements of Bacon’s essays such as quotations, impersonality, as well as paragraphs have been analyzed very briefly in this paper. Actually, this study is based on qualitative research. The research design was the textual analysis in order to analyze the text. The main instrument was the text of Francis Bacon’s selected essays. The data were in the form of lines, sentences, phrases and words. To analyze the text, the researchers have used steps such as paraphrasing, analyzing, identification and classification. Finally, the result of this study shows the writing style of Francis Bacon which is based on aphoristic, utilitarianism and other significant elements, like the usage of impressive quotations, unique paragraphs and Bacon’s objectivity regarding his essays.</em></p> Khaled Ahmad Sarwary Zalmai Samsor Copyright (c) 2024 Khaled Ahmad Sarwary, Zalmai Samsor 2024-05-19 2024-05-19 6 2 197 209 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1574 Vietnamese Speech Act Realization and Some Factors Influencing Refusal Strategies: A Pilot Study <p>The purpose of this pilot research was to explore the refusal strategies and factors influencing speech act realization of refusals employed by a group of Vietnamese language learners when making refusals to invitations, requests, offers, and suggestions by 5 participants at Tien Giang University to shed light on the possible problems leading to cross-cultural differences in communication. A Written Discourse Completion Test (WDCT) and 5 interview questions in English versions developed by the researcher were used to collect the data and analyze it qualitatively and quantitatively. The results illustrated that the participants frequently used indirect strategies for refusing each context given in the WDCT. Furthermore, based on the participants’ answers via the interview records, it could be concluded that social contexts, distance, and cross-cultural differences influenced L2 learners of English as a Foreign Language.&nbsp; The findings of this study highlight some strategies to help learners understand and gain more strategies in speech act realization of refusals and misunderstanding can be avoided. Besides, the interlocutors can receive appropriate responses to refusing invitations, requests, offers, and suggestions.</p> Tuyen Bui Copyright (c) 2024 Tuyen Bui 2024-05-23 2024-05-23 6 2 210 236 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1665 Investigating Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Incorporation of Global Education within the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Context “Ticket to English” textbook as a case study <p><em>This study examines the investigation of the integration of global education within the Moroccan English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context, focusing on the attitudes and perceptions of EFL teachers toward the inclusion of global issues and values in secondary public school textbooks. Utilizing a quantitative research methodology, the study employs surveys and questionnaires to gather insights from a carefully selected participant pool. The findings reveal a spectrum of perspectives among teachers, with some emphasizing that integrating global values enhances learners' global awareness and fosters global citizenship. In contrast, others express concerns that such inclusions may aim to assimilate learners into a homogeneous global culture, potentially suppressing local and national identities. Notably, the study underscores the perception that global education is viewed by some as ideologically driven rather than educationally motivated, prompting critical reflections on the underlying principles guiding these integrations and their alignment with broader educational goals. This article contributes valuable insights for curriculum development and pedagogical considerations in the context of global education in Morocco's EFL classrooms.</em></p> Youness Attou Jamal TAHARI Mahmoud Seddik Mohamed Benaissa Copyright (c) 2024 Youness Attou, Jamal TAHARI, Mahmoud Seddik, Mohamed Benaissa 2024-05-26 2024-05-26 6 2 237 247 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1705 Timelines and Dystopian Imagery: Modernism and Realism in W.H. Auden's "The Shield of Achilles" <p><em>This research item explores W.H. Auden’s amalgamation of different timelines and dystopian imagery using modernist and realist styles in “The Shield of Achilles”. The paper aims to analyze his depiction of societal evolution and human experiences. Auden braids stories of change and existential questions by combining innovative techniques with realistic details. The study deciphers the poem’s layered time periods and it’s method of combining despair and hope while straddling artistic innovation and mid-20th century realities. Auden’s dystopian images reflect the era’s anxieties, while his modernist approach challenges norms. The research item aims to bring forward the temporal layers, revealing his engagement with linear and cyclical time concepts. The study elucidates tensions between avant-garde creativity and mid-20th century existence. In essence, the goal of this study is to analyze Auden’s blending of timelines, dystopian scenes, modern and realistic styles to depict societal experiences, human sufferings including psychologically, materialistically, and lastly existential crisis. It aims to understand his panoramic view combining hope/despair and innovation/reality through close stylistic examination.</em></p> Tasmia Islam Aurin Copyright (c) 2024 Tasmia Islam Aurin 2024-05-29 2024-05-29 6 2 248 259 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1693 Linguistic analysis of Chinese neologisms from 2017 to 2021 <p><em>Lexicon is the most sensitive component of language in mirroring the changes in society. In this paper, Chinese neologisms were investigated from the perspective of their origins, characteristics and word formation, drawing the corpus of Chinese neologisms from the Language Situation in China from 2017 to 2021. Findings suggest that contemporary Chinese neologisms primarily stem from six sources: 1) new coinages; 2) existing words used with new meanings; 3) new words coined by media, magazines and news agencies; 4) internet neologisms; 5) words from dialects; 6) loanwords from other languages. In terms of the characteristics of Chinese neologisms, it is observed that in contrast to the dominance of disyllabic words in traditional Chinese, multi-syllabic words are emerging as a prominent trend in Chinese neologisms. Finally, a linguistic analysis of the corpus has been conducted to identify the formation of new words at the phonetic, morphological and semantic levels, resulting in the proposal of six categories: homophony, compounding, abbreviation, derivative words, words with letters/numbers, and rhetorical words.</em></p> Qingqin Tan Copyright (c) 2024 Qingqin Tan 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 6 2 260 275 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1449 Conceptual Review: Cultivating Learner Autonomy Through Self-Directed Learning & Self-Regulated Learning: A Socio-Constructivist Exploration <p><em>This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for fostering learner autonomy (LA) in educational settings by integrating socio-constructivist principles with self-directed learning (SDL) and self-regulated learning (SRL). Emphasizing LA as both a learning process and a personal capacity, the framework draws on Vygotskian socio-cultural principles and Piagetian cognitive development. It underscores the importance of fostering LA in the contemporary "post-truth" classroom, where critical thinking and information literacy are paramount. Through analysis, three key insights emerge: socio-constructivism highlights the interplay between social interactions and individual cognitive development, SDL serves as the pathway to LA by empowering learners to control their learning, and SRL integrates metacognition for the metaliterate learner. Looking ahead, future research could explore effective pedagogical strategies, ensure learner agency and empowerment, and develop robust methods to assess LA and metaliteracy skills. By addressing these areas, educators can create environments conducive to cultivating self-directed, critical thinkers prepared for the challenges of the information age.</em></p> Sara Kharroubi Abdeljabbar ElMediouni Copyright (c) 2024 Sara Kharroubi, Abdeljabbar ElMediouni 2024-06-02 2024-06-02 6 2 276 296 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1649 Empowering Saudi Women through Automobile Advertisements: A Transitivity Analysis <p><em>The purpose of the present study is to examine automobile advertisements that specifically targeted Saudi women during the year the ban on women driving was lifted. The study employed a critical discourse analysis (CDA) focusing on Halliday's transitivity system to identify the transitivity processes of automobile advertisements. To discern the transitivity processes used, a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to attain a comprehensive understanding of the various types of transitivity processes and the identifying themes promoted by these processes. The findings reveal that the material process was the most frequent process used in automobile advertisements targeting Saudi women, followed by the existential and relational processes. In addition, these processes were mainly employed to empower Saudi women, which is the primary theme identified during the qualitative analysis. Examining the roles and circumstances of the participants could yield more relevant data for future research.</em></p> Najah Alsaedi Copyright (c) 2024 Najah Alsaedi 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 6 2 297 315 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1714 Whitman’s Power of Visual Representation in Leaves of Grass: A Proto-Cinematic Gaze and the Influence of Modern Technology <p><em>This paper discusses Whitman’s power of visual representation in Leaves of Grass, attempting to link the notion of a proto-cinematic gaze to a more general concern with the influence of modern technology on Whitman’s poetic vision. Whitman’s observation, like a camera producing the immediate photographic impression of the crowd, emerges as a form of collective memory or a corporeal perception of mass, and claims omnipresence in the poet’s visual activity that records the changing landscape of the United States. The central argument is based on two significant elements of Whitman’s poetics which help Leaves of Grass revolutionize American modern poetry: the flâneur and his camera eye. Through the flâneur’s camera eye, mixed with his special techniques of observation, Whitman’s reader is drawn to the poet’s astonishing combination of verbal and visual modes, which, though intensely lyrical, evokes the strength of poetic graphic power.</em></p> Chiung-Ying Huang Copyright (c) 2024 Chiung-Ying Huang 2024-06-02 2024-06-02 6 2 316 329 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1727 Learner Autonomy, Language Learning Strategies and English Language Proficiency of Filipino Senior High School Students <p><em>This study assessed students’ knowledge by looking at their learner autonomy in English language learning, the extent of language learning strategies and their English language proficiency. A descriptive method of research was used in this study. The respondents of this study were senior high school students of Magsaysay District during the second semester of the Academic Year 2022-2023. They were selected through a proportional random sampling technique. Several instruments were used by the researcher including the survey questionnaires about learner autonomy in English language learning, the extent of language learning strategies as well as the students’ English language proficiency. It was found that the senior high school students of Magsaysay District have a high level of learner autonomy in English language learning in terms of cognitive, affective motivational, action-oriented and social while moderate in terms of metacognitive. Senior high school students of Magsaysay District have a high level of language learning strategies in terms of compensation, social, metacognitive, cognitive, memory and affective. They have an average level of English language proficiency in terms of grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension. Findings also showed that there is a significant relationship between learner autonomy in English language learning and language learning strategies, between language learning strategies and English language proficiency. However, learner autonomy in English language learning does not affect English language proficiency. Furthermore, results indicate that cognitive best predicts learning language strategy, as well as English language proficiency and cognitive strategy best predicts English language proficiency. In conclusion, the higher the learner autonomy in English language learning, the higher the extent of language learning strategies and the higher the extent of language learning strategies, the higher the English language proficiency.</em></p> Christian Soliman Joanne D. Gorospe Copyright (c) 2024 Christian Soliman, Joanne D. Gorospe 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 6 2 330 359 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1645 An Action Research on the Impact of Podcasts in Grammar Learning of Elementary Students <p><em>With technology development, language studies use online resources as authentic materials for more engaging and effective language learning. With this perception, the researchers investigated how podcasts can be employed as authentic learning facilities for English learners specifically on the mobility and exclusivity of this material in teaching verb tense and form aspects. The researchers conducted a 40-item language test as a pretest and posttest utilizing podcasts for grade 6 students. The participants’ behaviours were also observed to have in-depth information. Whereas, the collected responses from the questionnaire on the students’ attitudes towards the use of podcasts were employed to provide an understanding of the factors that might have impacted the study. The results indicate that utilizing podcasts in grammar lessons has a positive impact on student’s grammar knowledge. Additionally, the observed behaviors manifested while using the podcasts in class affirmed learners’ interests and their cooperation although there are times they expressed boredom and restlessness due to long periods of listening. Eventually, they expressed enjoyment and satisfaction in their participation in grammar learning with podcasts. It is suggested that teachers should use short podcasts that are appropriate to the target grammar to enhance students’ motivation.</em></p> Ja Nan Lan Nai Ciang Copyright (c) 2024 Ja Nan, Lan Nai Ciang 2024-06-13 2024-06-13 6 2 360 384 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1671 The Ambiguity Commune of The Novel “The Magic Mountain”: Social Class Tensions and Inquiry of Self <p>This article aims to delve into the assertion of social and personal change at the dawn of World War I as reflected in Thomas Mann's novel <em>The Magic Mountain</em>. Hans Castorp, the central character, undergoes a profound journey of experience and growth, which is divided into two stages: before and after his stay at the sanatorium. Initially depicted as a young man engrossed in leisure and superficial pursuits, indifferent to societal changes and personal pleasures, Hans undergoes a significant transformation during his time at the sanatorium. This period sparks deeper intellectual and moral engagement, mirroring T.Mann's vision for the elite class in early 20th-century German society. T.Mann envisioned a shift from apathy and detachment to active involvement with the community and a clearer sense of purpose. Through Hans Castorp, T.Mann explores the potential for personal and societal renewal. This study employs literary textual analysis to examine Hans Castorp's unique characteristics, contradictions, and development, providing insights into the evolution of T.Mann's artistic and philosophical ideas. By analyzing Hans's character, this research highlights T.Mann's critique of his contemporary society and his hope for a more engaged and purposeful elite. It underscores the enduring relevance of <em>The Magic Mountain</em> in exploring themes of personal growth and social transformation.</p> Thi My Linh On Copyright (c) 2024 Thi My Linh On 2024-06-09 2024-06-09 6 2 385 395 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1724 Benefits, Challenges, and Attitudes Toward ChatGPT in English Writing Courses at Saudi Universities <p><em>The purpose of this research is to gather the insights of students and teachers regarding the use and integration of ChatGPT in writing classes/courses at Saudi universities. By conducting a comprehensive review with the use of an online survey, the study is able to show the opportunities and risks posed by this technology. Using ChatGPT, it was found that the majority of the respondents have a slightly positive disposition toward the tool with a significant chunk of the responses leaning toward neutrality. The results show that the participants acknowledge the potential benefits of ChatGPT, citing increased creativity, improved learning experiences, academic support, and enhanced productivity as key benefits. Nonetheless, concerns such as the absence of a personal touch, plagiarism risks, and student anxiety were raised with teachers being more concerned about ethical considerations than students. The data indicate no constant high level of confidence in the use of ChatGPT, though, various participants commented that they required more training and guidance on the tool. The preference for using ChatGPT regularly or as a supplementary tool rather than to replace the traditional methods reflects cautious optimism towards its adoption. This study also shows with proper integration of the tool ChatGPT has great potential in writing classes to support students and educators, provided that educational institutions work on creating specific ethical guidelines, providing technical support, and ensuring academic integrity. This way, they can enjoy the benefits ChatGPT offers while managing the negative aspects and improving the overall educational experience. This research adds to the growing discussion regarding the use and integration of AI technologies in education contexts, and it offers a starting point for subsequent research that examines AI tool efficiency within Saudi educational environments.</em></p> Nasser Alqahtani Copyright (c) 2024 Nasser Alqahtani 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 6 2 396 413 10.36892/ijlls.v6i2.1739 Postmodern approach to history in the novel "Selvitë e Tivari" by author M.Kraja <p class="p1"><em>This study article aims to analyze the special way through which the important events of the historical</em></p> <p class="p1"><em>past are integrated in the fiction of the writer Mehmet Kraja with the aim of ironizing and not</em></p> <p class="p1"><em>documenting them.</em></p> <p class="p1"><em>Our main argument is that in the novel "Selvitë e Tivari" the historical context of the Tivari War is</em></p> <p class="p1"><em>effectively portrayed through postmodern narrative tools and techniques, which highlight doubt and</em></p> <p class="p1"><em>unreliability towards references and the absolute authenticity of historical narratives.</em></p> <p class="p1"><em>The use of techniques such as: the presence of a "dubious" narrator's voice, fragmentation, time</em></p> <p class="p1"><em>distortion, ironic representation, etc., appear as postmodern strategies that play an important role in</em></p> <p class="p1"><em>blurring the boundaries between reality (truth) and fiction and enable the thematization of important</em></p> <p class="p1"><em>issues of history, culture and human and national identity.</em></p> <p class="p1"><em>Our methodology includes the use of analysis methods, which will enable us to delve into the interior of</em></p> <p class="p1"><em>the text, at the levels of narration and discourse, as well as the comparative method, with the aim of</em></p> <p class="p1"><em>highlighting the differences and commonalities between traditional and contemporary models of</em></p> <p class="p1"><em>historical fiction.</em></p> Valbona Kalo Copyright (c) 2024 Valbona Kalo 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 6 2 The Meanings of Face as Manifested in Moroccan Arabic Idioms and Proverbs <p><em>Face plays a pivotal role in human interaction. Indeed, it is a multifaceted construct that has various connotative meanings in different cultures. It has been used, in various contexts, to refer to social value, social status, self- image, reputation, dignity, honour, and several other notions. In this regard, the aim of this study is to explore the meanings and concepts associated with face in Moroccan Arabic (MA) idiomatic expressions and proverbs. To achieve this objective, the study used a corpus of 30 items from MA. Many expressions were collected by the researcher using his knowledge of MA as a native speaker and his discussions with different people both face-to-face and on social media. Some items of the corpus were collected from available collections of proverbs. The selection of the data has been based on the principle of currency. The data were transliterated and translated into English to explore the meanings and concepts associated with face in MA. The study showed that face in the Moroccan culture is closely related to shame or Moroccan hshuma and that it is associated with the inner state and character of people more than it does in English.</em></p> Mohammed Khatib Copyright (c) 2024 Mohammed Khatib 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 6 2