International Journal of Language and Literary Studies <p>International<strong> Journal of Language and Literary Studies </strong> is an open access, double blind peer reviewed journal that publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of linguistics, literature and TESL. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference. All articles published in LLSJ are initially peer-reviewed by experts in the same field.</p> en-US (International Journal of Language and Literary Studies ) (Yasser Alrefaee) Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Blue without my Green: A Corpus Analysis on Colours of Grief and Emotive Expressions of Amy Winehouse’s Compositions <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Singers and songwriters use their music as a platform for communication, using lyrics to express intimate sentiments - often caused by the pressures of the music industry as well as personal matters such as mental health. In this study, we analysed Amy Winehouse’s songs, exploring the explicit and subliminal affective messages using linguistic techniques i.e., metaphors and colour symbolism. Grounded on corpus analysis and stages of grief theory, we looked at linguistic patterns and intensity of word choice related to Amy’s choices of colours and emotive expressions. The findings show that sadness was the most prevalent emotion in her lyrics and its correlation to her mental health issues; the transition of positive sentiments developing into negative emotions was also evident in the data. Her complex relationships and experiences were also infused into her deliberate self-portrayal of catalytic mental deterioration, self-destruction, and torment. This study offers new insights in corpus analysis research on psycholinguistics and mental health in pop culture.&nbsp;</span></p> Nicola Philippou, Aiden Yeh Copyright (c) 2023 Aiden Yeh, Nicola Philippou Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Measurement of Language Knowledge as a Controversial Elaborative Linguistic Framework <p>This article is an attempt to determine the significance of vocabulary knowledge by describing its components and features on the basis of different existing models in such a way as to explore the language knowledge measurement criteria and find out the extent to which language knowledge is adequately measured. In fact, a plethora of research has been conducted on teaching and learning vocabulary, and testing vocabulary size. Though this linguistic element has been a controversial issue for so long, many scholars in the field of linguistics agreed upon the utility and the crucial role it has in relation to language teaching, learning, and testing. However, the investigation of the vocabulary knowledge takes into consideration three different aspects. The first aspect deals with vocabulary measurement, with the clarification of the differentiation between language knowledge in terms of its inference and language performance in terms of its observation. The second aspect examins the meaning of “word knowledge” by distinguishing between receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. The third aspect deals with the qualitative aspect of the learners’ vocabulary knowledge in terms of understanding by identifying “breadth” and “depth”. This article also paves the way for the review of vocabulary size and the counting of family words on the basis of rigorous empirical studies in this field.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Mustapha Boughoulid, Abdelkrim El Khatmi Copyright (c) 2023 Mustapha Boughoulid, Abdelkrim El Khatmi Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Use of Vectors to Explore Visual Meaning Making <p>The role of women in Saudi society has regularly attracted attention. To many non-Saudis the historic restrictions are seen as evidence of deep and fundamental discrimination and the complexities of how restrictions and freedoms interact overlooked. Since 2017, there have been a series of major reforms to the male guardianship system and this has opened up public spaces for women as well as ending the emblematic ban on women driving. However, in turn, this has seen contested interpretations with criticisms of the limited nature of the reforms contrasted with those who see them as a major and significant step.</p> <p>This study looks at a series of images of women in public spaces in Saudi Arabia both before and after the recent reforms.&nbsp; The importance of vectors within the image as a means to combine different semiotic modes is the main research tool for understanding intersemiosis. This also allows a study of whether the represented actors are seeking to directly engage with the external viewer or if their focus is bounded by the image.</p> <p>This stresses the importance of intersemiosis in understanding the individual semiotic modes in an image.&nbsp; However, it also stresses that intersemiosis, in itself, cannot explain the wider process of resemiosis.</p> Bashayir Alzahrani, Mohammed Alhuthali Copyright (c) 2023 Mohammed Alhuthali, Bashayir Alzahrani Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 From Post-structuralism and Marxism to Postcolonial Cultural Subversion and Political Resistance against the Once-colonized <p><strong>abstract</strong></p> <p><em>Contemporary political movements such as Marxism and post-Marxism, as well as intellectual and academic movements such as post-structuralism, postmodernism, and psychoanalysis have had a great influence on postcolonial literary criticism. There has been so much debate around the question whether issues of colonial/neocolonial domination and decolonial resistance should be regarded as political or cultural issues or as a combination of both political and cultural sectors (including ethical and psychological points of view) that the terms “political”, “cultural” themselves have appeared to be relative terms–assuming different meanings at different times. This paper will show how such poststructural conflations of the “political” and “cultural” regarding the issues of both domination and resistance can appear as problematic for postcolonial context where the division between the two terms appears so obvious at times that the boundary between them is inescapably erected once again producing ultimately an ambivalence. However, whatever the approach is to colonial/neocolonial dominations, and whatever the mode of resistance is proposed to challenge them, whether it is political or cultural or psychological, radical or liberal, or conflation of them, every discussion ultimately produce a liberal self-criticism at the cost of the once-colonized peoples, states and their cultures.</em></p> Saima Sultana Copyright (c) 2023 saima sultana Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Destructive Sublime in Tamburlaine the Great <p>The subject of this essay is not a response that depends on the religious or moral conventions that are usually invoked by critics, but rather it is a vision that echoes destructive sublime in Tamburlaine’s character, arousing another kind of sublimity from representations of feminine forms. The request for a precise societal appreciation is produced from the ‘new immaterial’ world, which was represented in entity of the bloody Tamburlaine who found himself profaned in the ‘human’ world through his sense of destructive sublimity, as it will be discussed later. In Marlowe’s play <em>Tamburlaine the Great</em>, I will investigate how the sublime, as a representative of destructiveness and violence, being shaped over a kind of displeasure with the outer world and within the self. Moreover, I will argue how the female figure in this play is the ‘object petit’, introducing the lack, the otherness of femininity which ultimately incapacitates the male protagonist.</p> Kholoud Algamdi Copyright (c) 2023 Kholoud Algamdi Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Disorienting the Native Struggle for Independence: A Postcolonial Reading of Leila Slimani's Historical Novel, The Country of Others <p><strong><em>Novels can both reinforce colonialism and undermine liberation movements, especially when they echo colonial narratives. This dynamic is critically examined in Leila Slimani's historical novel, "The Country of Others," through a postcolonial close reading approach. The novel's depiction of France's colonialism in Morocco is presented in a misleading light. It offers a stark contrast in character portrayal: European characters are depicted as agents of a “civilizing mission,” with aspirations to bring prosperity, good health, and education to Moroccans. This portrayal not only feeds into a narrative of cultural superiority, depicting Europeans as emotionally complex and culturally advanced, but also subtly suggests benevolence in their colonial endeavors. Conversely, indigenous Moroccan characters are shown in a more one-dimensional and negative manner, often associated with violence, particularly against women. Furthermore, the novel intertwines Morocco's struggle for national independence with contemporary discourses on Islamic extremism, casting this historical fight less as a pursuit of freedom and more as an aggressive and antagonistic movement.</em></strong></p> Hamza Bekkaoui Copyright (c) 2023 Hamza Bekkaoui Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Rise of English in Morocco and the Question of Identity <p><em>English, as the lingua franca of the world, is gaining considerable popularity in Morocco in response to the calls of globalization, social mobility, and neoliberalism. Given this new status of English in the multilingual scope in Morocco, it is highly interesting to study how learning English in EFL settings influences learners’ identities, namely in tertiary education. This paper introduces an exploratory study that aims to highlight the impact of learning English as a foreign language on students’ self-identities in Morocco. Therefore, the objective of this study is to track any possible impact of the target culture on beliefs, and values learners of English and how exposure to the English language affects their perception of Moroccan culture as English majors. The study also aims at weighing the extent to which students are allowed /pushed to behave outside the norms of their cultural values by adopting an identity change model. This study utilized thematic analysis to qualitatively analyze data from focus group interviews aimed at understanding the impact of learning English as a foreign language on Moroccan students' self-identities. Four key themes emerged from the analysis: 1) self-confidence enhancement, 2) self-identity transformation, 3) identity negotiation in intercultural contexts, and 4) degrees of identity change. The participants' positive attitudes toward learning English and its influence on their self-identities were evident. The findings underscored how English proficiency affects self-confidence, cultural beliefs, and attitudes, revealing a complex interplay between language acquisition and identity shifts. The study contributes to understanding the evolving role of English in Moroccan society and its implications for individual identities amidst globalization.</em></p> Ali Bekou, Dr. Ben Mhamed Copyright (c) 2023 Ali Bekou, Dr. Ben Mhamed Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 "Writing Became a Tool for Self-Discovery" How Intercultural Experiences Shape EFL Instructors’ Evolving Identities and Pedagogies: A Qualitative Inquiry <p>This qualitative study delves into the experiences of three Saudi EFL instructors who pursued their postgraduate studies in the United States, exploring the relationship between writing and identity. Through the lens of narrative inquiry, the research uncovers the multifaceted experiences of these instructors, shedding light on the interplay of cultural, linguistic, and educational influences on their professional identities. The study's findings reveal that the U.S. educational system, with its diverse pedagogical approaches and emphasis on critical thinking, played a pivotal role in shaping the instructors' perceptions of writing as an act of identity expression. Furthermore, the research highlights the transformative power of foreign education as the instructors navigate through the challenges and opportunities of studying in a different linguistic and cultural environment. Their narratives underscore the dynamic nature of identity, which is continuously negotiated and redefined in response to various educational and cultural stimuli. The importance of this study lies not only in its insights into the personal and professional journeys of the three EFL instructors but also in its broader implications for the field of EFL education. It emphasizes the need for educators and institutions to recognize and value the diverse backgrounds and experiences of EFL instructors as well as learners, as these play a crucial role in shaping pedagogical practices and beliefs. In essence, this research contributes to the growing body of literature on the nexus of writing, identity, and foreign education, offering a nuanced understanding of the challenges and rewards of cross-cultural educational experiences.</p> Mansoor Almalki Copyright (c) 2023 Mansoor Almalki Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 MAKING SENSE OF FLOUTING CONVERSATION MAXIMS OF TEACHER-STUDENT INTERACTIONS IN MOVIES: A MIXED METHODS <p><em>This mixed methods study, employing embedded design, aimed to ascertain the evident flouting maxim statements by the teachers and students during classroom interaction as depicted in five selected movies and how teachers and students react to and use flouting maxim statements. It also aimed to determine the significant difference between the occurrence of observed and non-observed flouting in classroom interactions. Results yielded that out of the 35 dialogues, 11 dialogues observed the cooperative principle and its conversation maxims while 24 dialogues deviated. Through IDI and FGD, the researcher unearthed the six essential themes in teachers' and students' reactions to and use of flouting maxim statements. Results revealed that there is no significant difference in the number of observed flouting maxims between teachers and students in terms of maxims of quality, quantity, relation, and manner. In integrating the data, three focal points were obtained namely: the sensitivity of students over teachers in detecting flouting maxims, no significant difference in the detection of flouting maxims in a classroom interaction, and teacher and student almost significantly differ in detecting the maxim of relation. In all the focal points, the nature of data integration is embedding.</em></p> CRISTY GRACE A NGO, John Harry S Caballo, Ana Louella N. Navarro Copyright (c) 2023 John Harry Caballo Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Saudi EFL Students’ Perceptions of Pedagogical Translanguaging in English Medium Instruction <p><em>The English language has been increasingly used as a medium of instruction (EMI) at the tertiary level in Saudi Arabia. Recent research has garnered Saudi students’ perceptions regarding EMI, revealing that some participants preferred a mixture of English and Arabic. Although these studies have provided valuable results, they did not expose participants to translanguaging before investigating their perceptions. Hence, this paper reports on the findings of a quantitative study that surveyed 18 Saudi college students about their perceptions of a four-week pedagogical translanguaging intervention delivered to improve their academic writing skills. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of incorporating pedagogical translanguaging into an EMI setting. A Likert-scale questionnaire consisting of 12 items was used to collect data after which it was analyzed via SPSS. Findings revealed most participants found translanguaging useful as it made lessons and activities less challenging and more comprehensible. We suggest that teachers and policymakers adopt a flexible language use policy in tertiary education, normalizing translanguaging as a medium of instruction in EMI contexts. Implications for incorporating translanguaging as a medium of instruction and recommendations for future research directions are discussed.</em></p> Bakheet Almatrafi Copyright (c) 2023 Bakheet Almatrafi Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Tapping into the Right-Brain: Using Visual Culture to Accelerate Early-Stage Adult Maltese Language Learning <p><em>Recent evidence suggests that right-brain practices play an important role in language learning. However, little is known about how visual culture can be used to stimulate these practices and increase language knowledge retention in adult second language learners. This study explores the role of right-brain processes through visual culture, focusing on teaching Maltese to international adults. The study conducts a focus group of twenty-seven teachers to investigate various visual culture practices used in language classes. The findings have significant implications for language researchers and teachers beyond the specific context of Maltese language learning. By highlighting the role of right-brain practices and their potential impact on language learning, this study offers pedagogical implications that extend to other language-learning contexts. It provides valuable recommendations for employing specific visual culture practices to facilitate language learning, including drawing, sketching, orthographic mapping, the memory palace approach, wordless picture books, picture-based learning methods, infographics, Face Memory Game, Spot the Difference, Word Search Puzzles, the Hidden Object Game, videos, the Shadow Matching, Find the Differences, and colour-coding methods. These recommendations can inform language researchers and teachers seeking to enhance learning outcomes through visual culture practices in various language learning contexts.</em></p> Jacqueline Żammit Copyright (c) 2023 Jacqueline ?ammit Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Representation of Multicultural Content Provided by “World-Class Franchise” English Course Textbook Used in Indonesia: A Critical Discourse Analysis Study <p><em>Multicultural values in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) textbooks have attracted many researchers, academics, and educators in many studies around the world. However, there is limited literature examining the representation of multicultural content in English course textbooks used in Indonesia, specifically EFL course textbooks from world-class franchise programs. Therefore, this study employs Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to examine the impartiality of cultural content representation provided by the EFL course textbook regarding different cultures and ethnic groups. This study provided Halliday’s systemic functional analysis to examine verbal data. While Kress and Van Leeuwen’s visual grammar theory was employed to comprehend, analyze, and explore visual representations from selected EFL course textbooks. This study reveals the EFL course textbook does not reflect the diversity of cultures in Indonesia, as it mainly focuses on the perspectives and traditions of Western and European countries. This creates an unfair and distorted representation of other cultures, especially those from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, whose values and beliefs are not adequately considered or respected within the EFL course textbook. The implications of this study suggest that the inclusion of cultural sensitivity within EFL course textbooks is crucial in fostering cultural awareness, promoting respect among EFL learners, and creating a more equitable and inclusive learning environment. </em></p> Salma Ali Salem Mansoor Alawlaqi, Dihliza Basya Copyright (c) 2023 Salma Ali Salem Mansoor Alawlaqi, Dihliza Basya Tue, 19 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Learning Autonomy: An Investigation into the Perceptions and Practices of ENCG Students in the Acquisition of English Language Skills <p><em>This study investigates the notion of learner autonomy in EFL in the Moroccan School of Business and Management (ENCG). The concept of autonomy aims to empower learners to possess the necessary life skills such as critical thinking, problem solving and creativity to excel both personally and professionally. Learner autonomy was first introduced in the late 1970s and since then has been considered a learning goal in most educational curricula. In Morocco, all educational reforms, especially after 2000, have stressed the urgent need for key life skills to meet the requirements of the job market and globalised world. The present study examines the perceptions and practices of ENCG students towards learner autonomy in EFL. A sample of 662 ENCG students completed an online survey to gather quantitative data. Findings revealed that learners hold positive attitudes towards learner autonomy and they take part in activities depicting autonomous practices and behaviours. </em><em>These students demonstrate a strong awareness of strategies that contribute to learner autonomy and exhibit motivation to independently acquire English language skills at ENCG. In summary, the research establishes a robust basis for the potential growth and expansion of learner autonomy across various universities in Morocco</em><em>. </em></p> Amine EL MOUDDEN, Fouzia LAMKHANTER Copyright (c) 2023 Amine EL MOUDDEN, Fouzia LAMKHANTER Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Derivational Morphology Features in Common Akeanon Dialects <p><em>Akeanon language reflects the rich cultural uniqueness of Aklan natives in Panay Island, Philippines. It is spoken in different dialects as Akeanon Buruangganon, Akeanon Nabasnon, and Akeanon Bukidnon distinct from the standard Akeanon used in the central town of Kalibo. This descriptive cross-sectional study used documentary and content analyses to determine the derivational morphology features, and the different variations of common Akeanon dialects in terms of structure, word order, and affixation. Results revealed that most dialect variations of the language are expressed with endearment and warmth, with respect and assurance; followed by an inverted pattern from the normal word order of spoken or written English. Reduplication of base words and affixations using circumfix or confix were noted. Most of these affixes were derivational morphemes. Structure variations were observed wherein a bound morpheme in one dialect changes in another; some dropped an affix but retained its definition. Some Akeanon dialects have Tagalog origin while standard Akeanon words have substitutes in Akeanon dialect variations.</em></p> Ersyl Biray Copyright (c) 2023 Ersyl Biray Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Short-Term Memory in Language Processing: A Theoretical Review <p><em>This article takes an in-depth look at the complex role of short-term memory (STM) in language understanding. In addition to synthesizing previous research on this interrelationship, he ventures into less explored territory by analyzing the external and contextual factors that can influence this dynamic. The study has three main objectives: first, a comprehensive synthesis of previous work on the role of STM in various linguistic aspects; secondly, a discussion of points of convergence and divergence between these studies; and third, an innovative exploration of external influences, such as cultural and educational context, on the relationship between STM and language understanding. This last dimension sheds new light on the limitations of existing theories and highlights the importance of considering a wider range of variables when studying STM and language. The findings have significant implications for areas such as education and language therapy and suggest promising directions for future research.</em></p> Imane El Yousfi Copyright (c) 2023 Imane El Yousfi Mon, 18 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Depicting Migrants' Life in Moroccan Newspapers <p><em>Sub-Saharan migrants in Morocco have become a part and partial issue in Moroccan newspapers as their number has enormously risen. Media, in general, brings to the public most of the images, data, and facts about migrants. For this reason, the media's treatment of migration generates currents of opinion and attitudes towards these people. Furthermore, since it has been massively highlighted in Moroccan newspapers, many people would interpret migration from Sub-Saharan countries primarily from the messages from the Media. Therefore, the readers' images would be influenced by how the issue is depicted and portrayed in newspapers. This article aims to shed light on the way Moroccan newspapers deal with the issue of migration towards Morocco from Sub-Saharan countries and how their life was depicted after the launch of the new migration policy. With these objectives in mind, this study is based on qualitative data collection of news items and reports from four daily printed newspapers in Morocco. Relying on Content analysis has demonstrated a stereotypical misrepresentation and a slight change in topics coverage of 'black' African migrants in news narratives.</em></p> Salim Dib Copyright (c) 2023 Salim Dib Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Lived Experiences of Intermediate Teachers in Fostering Engagement in English Classes Through Blended Learning <p><em>The pandemic has brought several impacts in the field of education. Among the subjects that have been challenged in developing communicative competence in the new normal is English. Thus, this study aimed to explore the lived experiences of 15 Grade Four English Teachers in the Philippines to understand better how they concerted all efforts to engage students in English classes through the blended learning platform. The data were gathered by employing a phenomenological investigation, a qualitative inquiry. Through several in-depth interviews, in-person classroom observations, document analyses, data were coded and analyzed thematically. Findings showed that Fourth Grade teachers were able to engage their students during in-person sessions through the following themes (1) varied, (2) experiential, (3) animation, (4) reinforcement, and (5) reflection. As for the asynchronous sessions, the study found out that students wanted activities that are (1) varied, (2) challenging, (3) imaginative, (4) authentic, (5) rewarding, and (6) forges partnership. With these data, development programs for teachers to foster student engagement in English classes through the Blended Learning platform were recommended.</em></p> Mark Gleen Cidro Copyright (c) 2023 Mark Gleen Cidro Tue, 26 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Theorising Diaspora: Nationalist Discourse in Shaping Diasporic Subjects <p><em>Identities of individuals or communities undergo waves of changes and modifications of the constituents of the embodiment they are represented in. Diasporic subjects play a crucial role in the process of identifying the individuals as well as the communities since they reintroduce new perspectives to approach allegiances and categorisations. The paper </em><em>debates the diaspora from a theoretical perspective focalising on the role of the positionality of the bearers in participating in the construction of the diasporic apprehension in light of the nationalist discourse. It probes the dispersion and detachment of the diasporic subject and the probations of developing diverse identity allegiances while associating themselves to a group or community. It presents different strategies of the individuals in reconnecting to an embodiment of articulations. The very particular elements by which one can distinguish a diasporic subject from those of the others are, themselves, open to restructuring and reformulating. Diasporic identities are not the only variable that goes through the process of development and re-articulation that introduces new aspects to the entity of diaspora. As much as the reformulations that are made to the subjects themselves, what makes up their beings is affected by changes in perspectives toward them. Therefore, the process of re-enunciation contributes to adding new dimensions to the fundamental characteristics that make them distinctive rather than simply reproducing different viewpoints on the subjects and changes to what establishes them.</em></p> Brahim Abouyassine Copyright (c) 2023 Brahim Abouyassine Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 In Between Contemporary Approaches to Genre: the Case of the Trauma Novel <p><em>The elusive notion of genre has long been disputed in the field of literary studies, with certain voices going as far as to argue for disregarding the notion altogether in the study of literature. This article goes through the relevant schools of thought about genre and its functions, settling finally on one contemporary approach devised by Amy Devitt, which is then upgraded and employed in the analysis of two of the most famed contemporary trauma novels: On Earth We’re Briefly Gorgeous by Ocean Vuong and A Tale for the Time Being by Ruth Ozeki. The hypothesis of the paper is that the thorough and specialized knowledge about trauma which has been widely made available to society at large transpires in the writings of contemporary authors at the formal level of novel creation, a level which, if understood correctly, serves to uncover more meaning from the novels, producing a deeper level of philological understanding, as the formalities of the trauma novel contemporarily seem to mimic psychotherapeutic trauma approaches. </em></p> Cătălina-Diana Teliban Copyright (c) 2023 C?t?lina-Diana Teliban Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancing EFL Learning Through Computer-Based Gamification: An Investigation of Impact. <p><em>This study examines the impact of computer-based gamification on English language learning among adult and young learners. In order to gauge any potential impact of this teaching technique on learners, empirical research has been conducted using a quantitative design. Relevant data was collected using two quantitative data collection instruments; a questionnaire and a proctored test. The questionnaire sought to get insights into adult learners’ perspectives with regard to web-based learning while the test measured any impact of using Kahoot on English language performance and retention. The current study showed that the use of Kahoot positively affects learners' performance, motivation, engagement, and retention of English language skills and components. Besides, this research offers valuable recommendations to ESL teachers and designers of teaching materials as well, suggesting more integration of gamification in language teaching programs to enhance motivation and enjoyment in the EFL classroom. Furthermore, it emphasizes some advantages and drawbacks of integrating web-based gamification in teaching.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Brahim Mrissa, Khadija Anasse Copyright (c) 2023 Brahim Mrissa, Khadija Anasse Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Julia Kristeva's the Semiotic and the Symbolic Reading of Adrienne Rich's "Planetarium" and Carol Ann Duffy's "Havisham" <p><em>This paper sets itself the task of approaching Adrienne Rich's "Planetarium" from Kristeva's perspective of semiotics. It is intended here to show dynamics of signifying language as propounded by Kristeva. The study tries to reveal the hidden and neglected aspect of the poem or in Kristeva's notion, the semiotic aspect. In Kristeva's terms, language can be expressed through two realms: the symbolic and the semiotic aspects. "Planetarium" is considered a voice of feminist attitude, oppressed voice by the patriarchal society, which in its turn corresponds to the semiotic or the genotext. It is similar in a sense of oppression how women are oppressed and killed. The genotext is also covered by the potentiality of the symbolic aspect. The genotext appears in the form of tone, repetition, rhythm and even spaces as in "Planetarium." Here in the poem of "Planetarium," the kristevian writing is shown in the heavy use of semiotic aspect as a method of revolution towards the patriarchal structures, which are typified in the symbolic aspect of language. The paper concluded that language is not only means of communicating thoughts; an underlying layer of meaning and intentions might be elicited. </em></p> Mustafa Amjed Jasim Alhemeedawi, Ahmed Basim Saadoon Copyright (c) 2023 mustafa Alhemeedawi, Ahmed Basim Saadoon Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The The Effectiveness of a Program Based on the Teaching of Affixes in Developing Morphological Awareness among the Students of the Faculty of Arts, Dhamar University <p><em>This study aimed to investigate: a) To what extent the teaching of affixes affects in developing the students' morphological awareness of English, b) If there are significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the English morphological awareness. Due to the nature of the study, the researcher used quasi- experimental research. The instruments of data collection were morphological awareness tests which involve the tests of prefixes, suffixes, distributional and syntactic aspect. The study used means, standard deviation, paired sample t-test and an independent sample t- test. The program went through ten affixes sessions for two months and 15 days. The participants of this study were forty-two students. They were second-year students enrolled in the Bachelor of Arts at the University of Dhamar in Yemen in the academic year 2022 /2023. The findings revealed that the participants' level of morphological awareness was highly developed and that there were statistically significant differences at the significance level (? 0.05) of the morphological awareness test as a whole, and for each of its four domains separately in favour of the students of the experimental group in the participants' mean scores before and after using affixes program and between the experimental and control group in favour of the experimental group. It was observed that the program was very interesting and successful. Thus, it enabled students to identify and produce different word classes and have a lot of vocabularies which are necessary for EFL learners. They became perfect in the morphological awareness after the teaching of affixes.</em></p> AFAF ALSAKKAF, Mohammad Abdu Al-Mekhlafi Copyright (c) 2023 AFAF ALSAKKAF, Mohammad Abdu Al-Mekhlafi Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000